The 2000 Kilby Laureates

Michael Chasen - Young Innovator

Co-founders and Co-CEO's of Blackboard Inc., Michael Chasen, 29, and Matthew Pittinsky, 28, have recognized and delivered on the demand for a high-quality, easy-to-use, and cost-effective online educational software platform. Formed with their combined vision of transforming the Internet into a powerful environment for teaching and learning, Blackboard is the leading provider of e-Learning infrastructure to the academic market.

Matthew Pittinsky - Young Innovator

Co-founders and Co-CEO's of Blackboard Inc., Michael Chasen, 29, and Matthew Pittinsky, 28, have recognized and delivered on the demand for a high-quality, easy-to-use, and cost-effective online educational software platform. Formed with their combined vision of transforming the Internet into a powerful environment for teaching and learning, Blackboard is the leading provider of e-Learning infrastructure to the academic market.

Linus Benedict Torvalds - Young Innovator

Linus Torvalds is a Computer Scientist who in 1991 became a hero to Internet users worldwide by writing the Linux kernel while a graduate student at the University of Helsinki, Finland. His immensely popular Unix-based "open-source" operating system is available without charge on the Internet allowing users to make improvements and grow the system.

France Anne Cordova, Ph.D.

Physicist and former NASA Chief Scientist, France Anne Cordova led a scientific team whose digital electronics module was a vital component of a recent European Space Agency mission. She is establishing new paradigms in cross-discipline research programs (RAD) as Vice Chancellor of the University of California at Santa Barbara.

Bran Ferren

Bran Ferren is a visionary and futurist whose limitless imagination is partnered with keen scientific and technical skills. As the former President of Walt Disney Imagineering R&D and Creative Technology, and current co-founder of Applied Minds, Inc., Mr. Ferren is uniquely positioned at the epicenter of design, technology and creative conceptual strategies.

Hendrik Mario Geysen, Ph.D.

Australian Chemist and Distinguished Scientist at the Glaxo Wellcome Research Institute, Mario Geysen is the father of Combinatorial Chemistry, a new science that allows multiple drug candidates to be screened simultaneously. This extraordinary new process dramatically accelerates the pace of pharmaceutical analysis, development and delivery ultimately providing medicines to patients throughout the world.

Margaret Lowman, Ph.D.

American Botanist, Margaret Lowman is a pioneer in novel techniques for accessing the rainforest canopy. Her persistence and courage while conducting research in the challenging and sometimes dangerous conditions of the rainforest led to a new appreciation of this vital and fragile resource. Margaret Lowman serves as Executive Director at the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens and is a tireless and effective advocate for rainforest conservation.

Martin Schwab, Ph.D.

Swiss Neuroscientist at the University of Zurich ETH, Martin SchwabÕs groundbreaking research led to the identification of growth-inhibiting substances in the central nervous system. His work continues with the development of antibodies that neutralize these substances, thereby allowing new growth and regeneration - a stunning medical breakthrough in spinal cord injury research.

Ada Yonath, Ph.D.

Ada Yonath is an Israeli Structural Biologist associated with both the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Weizmann Institute (Israel) who patiently laid the foundation for a recent spectacular breakthrough in the crystallography of very large biological assemblies. Her elegant research has led to three-dimensional models, at atomic detail, of ribosomes, the molecular machines that use information in the genetic code to synthesize all proteins in the biosphere.

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The 1998 Kilby Laureates

Leonardo Chiariglione, Ph.D.

Italian visionary, technology entrepreneur, world telecommunications leader who is known as the "Father of MPEG," Motion Pictures Expert Group, which established standards for digitizing and compressing audio and video thus creating the path for worldwide use of HDTV.


Jennifer Harris


Aerospace Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Lab currently Lead System Engineer for the Mars 2001 Mission's Rover and Robotic arm. She earlier served as the flight director during the first day the Pathfinder landed on Mars.

Florence P. Haseltine, Ph.D., M.D.

Research Scientist, M.D., Innovator, Author who quietly changed the course of medical history through her dynamic influence on public policy and the funding of medical research to include women in critical clinical trials, saving countless lives in the process.


Karl M. Johnson, M.D., M.S.,


International virologist warrior who fights the world's most dreaded diseases, including Ebola, and other Hemorrhagic Fevers worldwide and who revolutionized lab and field techniques using space age technologies. Johnson continues to contribute expertise as he participates in the search for answers to the contagions threatening North American fabled gamefish.

Zafra M. Lerman, Ph.D.

Israeli scientist whose legendary bravery and success defending dissident scientists under persecution throughout the world is matched only by her creative ability to empower teachers to integrate art, music and theatre with scientific concepts, making science literacy available to disadvantaged young people everywhere.

William E. Strickland, Jr. M.A.

An Educator for our times, who after achieving personal success as a commercial aviation pilot, returned to his inner city roots to create Pittsburgh's Manchester Craftsman's Guild, a replicable model for enhancing the productivity of "at risk" youth using a unique experiential blend of fine arts, technology and science.

Masashi Yanagisawa, Ph.D., M.D.

Japanese research scientist whose creativity and leadership has opened a new field of biomedical research and whose continuing discoveries startle the world of medicine with their profound implications for treatment of congestive heart disease and strokes.


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The 1997 Kilby Laureates

Dr. James H. Clark.

Honored for his remarkable vision in producing affordable 3-D graphical computer systems capable of rendering images interactively and in real-time; acutely impacting technology by enabling individuals and companies to exchange information and conduct commerce over the browsers and other global networks. Clark was the Founder and former Chairman of Silicon Graphics Inc. and former Chairman of Netscape Communications Corp.

Dr. Hector Floyd DeLuca


Honored for his phenomenal discovery of the vitamin D-endocrine system which has allowed the creation of a new class of drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, which affects over 15 million Americans and a variety of human disorders of calcium metabolism. DeLuca is the Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Dr. Sylvia A. Earle

Honored for courageously pioneering the study of life below the surface of the seas through the development and use of daring methods of unprecedented dives. Dr. Earle has literally risked her life, as one of the first underwater explorers to make use of modern SCUBA gear, to push back the frontier to research underwater species. Earle is a world renowned ocean conservationist, author, entrepreneur, who currently serves as the resident explorer at National Geographic.

Dr. Barry Marshall

Honored for his revolutionary research into the causes and treatment of peptic ulcer disease, altering the world's view of this chronic, painful ailment. Marshall is the NHMRC Burnet Fellow, Department of Medicine, at the University of Western Australia.

Dr. Francine Penny Patterson

Honored for extraordinary dedication to the longest ongoing interspecies communication study ever undertaken, with Koko the Gorilla, to learn about primate linguistic abilities, resulting in an astonishing breakthrough in our understanding of the animal kingdom. Patterson is the Founder of the Gorilla Foundation.

Dr. Susan Athey


Honored for her ingenious development of tools and methods for mathematical models which economists, and researchers in other sciences, can apply to a wide range of problems, advancing economics to a dimension heretofore unrealized. Athey is an Associate Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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The 1996 Kilby Laureates

Steve Wozniak

Honored for his contributions to society, Wozniak co-founded Apple Computer in 1976, which launched the personal computer age. He also designed the Apple II, the first ready-made computer. He now devotes considerable time to schools in his community, providing equipment and teaching computer skills to fifth through eighth grade students.

Helen Murray Free


Honored for her revolutionary medical research, Free vastly improved medical diagnostics by inventing easy, accurate self test for blood sugar levels used worldwide. Helen Murray Free is a Professional Relations Consultant with Bayer Corporation and past president of the American Chemical Society.

Dr. Daniel Kaufman

Honored for his development of new pre-diagnostic tests and therapeutics for insulin-dependent diabetes (juvenile or type 1 diabetes). His work has advanced to clinical trials and points directly to the prospect of preventing the disease in humans. Kaufman is an Assistant Professor at the UCLA School of Medicine.

Dr. E. Clayton Teague

Honored for his pioneering research in the field of vacuum tunneling, he was the first to conduct experiments that demonstrated a quantitative and definitive observation of the phenomenon of vacuum tunneling, which ultimately led to the invention by others of a variety of atomic surface measurement devices. Teague is the Head of the Nano-Scale Metrology Group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kay Toliver

Honored for her innovative teaching methods, Toliver is nationally recognized at a school in one of the city's most rundown neighborhoods. A 1993 PBS TV documentary, "Good Morning, Miss Toliver," introduced her to viewers across the country. She hosts the new instructional television series, "The Eddie Files." Toliver is a Mathematics teacher in East Harlem, New York.

Mike McCue


Honored for his technological breakthroughs, McCue is known as "The Prince of VRML" (virtual reality modeling language). McCue started Paper Software with a borrowed computer at age 22 and transformed Netscape's Web browsers from 2-D to 3-D with his software. Paper Software was later acquired by Netscape. McCue is currently the CEO of Tellme.

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The 1995 Kilby Laureates

Vinton Cerf

Honored for his developments that caused the evolution of the browsers, Cerf is known throughout the industry as the "Father of the Internet." Now president of the Internet Society, he has been involved in the most important developments of the Internet's evolution. Dr. Cerf was a principal developer of ARPANET, the Internet predecessor, for the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency.


Dr. Huda Zoghbi

Honored for her collaborative work with Dr. Harry Orr, this neurobiologist identified the gene that causes spinocerebellar ataxia (CA). This incurable disease destroys brain cells governing muscle control and has the same flaw as those causing some cancers. The technology they developed and discoveries they made have accelerated the discovery of other genes that cause disease. Dr. Zoghbi is a neurologist at Baylor University College of Medicine.

Dr. Harry Orr

Honored for his collaborative work with Dr. Huda Zoghbi, this neurobiologist identified the gene that causes spinocerebellar ataxia. The gene has the same flaw as those causing some cancers. Their work provides clues to the mechanics of all inherited diseases. Dr. Orr is a neurobiologist at the University of Minnesota Medical School.

Dr. Hans Herren

Honored for his life saving work, Herren is an entomologist who achieved biological control in Africa of the cassava mealybug, a pest that ravaged the basic food staple of 200 million people. Dr. Herren eradicated the mealybug without pesticides by introducing tiny wasp that lay their eggs in mealybug larvae. Dr. Herren is Chief Executive and Director General, International Institute of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

Dr. Jewel Plummer Cobb


Honored for her outstanding research practices, Cobb is a cell biologist best known for involvement in experiments concerning the effects of new drugs on human cancer cells. Cobb has made important contributions enhancing educational opportunities for minorities in science. Cobb is the President Emeritus of California State University.

Tim Berners-Lee


Honored for his vast technical insight, Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web (W3), an Internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing, while working at CERN. Now at MIT, he directs the W3 Consortium that coordinates W3 development.


Dr. Marc Hannah


Honored for his innovative insight, Hannah is Co-founder of Silicon Graphics, international market leader in 3-D computer graphics. He was chief architect of the Personal IRIS, Indigo, Indigo2, and Indy graphics subsystems. The company's revolutionary workstations were used to create the special effects in movies seen by millions of people, including Jurassic Park and Terminator 2.

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The 1994 Kilby Laureates

Dr. Robert D. Ballard

Honored for his discoveries and projects, Ballard is the underwater explorer who discovered the sunken wreckage of the ocean liner Titanic. In 1989, he created the JASON Project, enabling students and teachers to participate in underwater exploration via live, interactive television broadcasts from remote sites through advanced technologies in robotics, fiber optics, television production, computer science, mechanical and electrical engineering, simulation, computer graphics and satellite communications. Ballard is the President of the Institution for Exploration.

Dean Kamen

Honored for his innovative concepts, Kamen founded U.S. FIRST (Foundation for the Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a non-profit organization dedicated to motivating the next generation by making science and technology appealing. The U.S. FIRST Competition joined high school students with intense, made- for-television sporting event, thus combining the excitement of competition with the challenge of creative design and engineering. Kamen is also the President and Owner of DEKA Research and Development, Corp.

Stephanie L. Kwolek

Honored for her revolutionary discoveries, Kwolek invented Kevlar. Heralded as the most important synthetic fiber since the creation of nylon, this aramid fiber has five times the strength of steel. The Kevlar discovery has made possible a whole host of new products that enhance the quality of life, including reinforced belts in radial tires and bullet-proof vests. Kwolek is an inspiration to young people and an exceptional role model for women in science and technology.

Dr. Michael A. Zasloff

Honored for his unprecedented work, Zasloff discovered an entirely new class of antibiotics. By accessing the defense systems of animals such as the African clawed frog, the pig, the cow and the spiny dogfish shark, he is unlocking heretofore unrecognized secrets of healing. Substances extracted from these animals are showing exceptional promise as drugs for treating infections, healing wounds and killing some tumors. Dr. Zasloff is Executive Vice President, Magainin Pharmaceuticals.

Dr. Mark A. Reed


Honored for his noteworthy discoveries, Reed led the team which made the first lithographically defined quantum dot in 1987 while at Texas Instruments Central Research Lab. His research at Yale continues to push the frontiers of electronic theory with eight U.S. and foreign patents on novel quantum effect and heterojunction devices, and has patents pending on molecular electronics. Reed is the Harold Hodgkinson Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Chairman of Electrical Engineering at Yale University.


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The 1993 Kilby Laureates

Dr. Francis S. Collins

Honored for his exceptional genetic research, Collins is recognized for the research resulting in the identification of the genes which causes cystic fibrosis , neurofibromatosis and Huntington's disease. In 1993, he was named the first director of the International Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institutes of Health, where he is spokesman for the nation's genetic research.


Dr. Candace B. Pert

Honored for her innovative research in the field of brain biochemistry, which has led to an understanding of the chemicals that travel between the mind and the body and for her discovery of Peptide T. Former chief of brain biochemistry at the National Institutes of Health. She is now a noted author and Research Professor at Georgetown University Medical Center.

Dr. George F. Smoot

Honored for his extraordinary and definitive research, Smoot is distinguished for his work on the instrumentation placed aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched in 1989. This led to significant astrophysical finding regarding the origin of the universe. Smoot is a Professor of Physics at the University of California at Berkeley.


Dr. Mae C. Jemison

Honored for her noteworthy accomplishments, she became the first African-American woman astronaut. A chemical engineer as well as a physician, she was a science-mission specialist aboard the spacecraft Endeavor in September 1992, performing experiments and monitoring the reactions of living organisms in space. Jemison is a Professor of Environmental Studies and Director of the Jemison Institute at Dartmouth College.

Dr. K. Eric Drexler


Honored for his advancement in molecular nanotechnology, Drexler is leading a new field to an expanding dimension of new engineering applications in the 21st century. Drexler coined the term nanotechnology to refer to technology whose dimensions are measured in billionths of a meter. His book Nanosystems won the 1992 Association of American Publishers award for Best Computer Science Book. Drexler is the Chairman of the Foresight Institute.

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The 1992 Kilby Laureates

Dr. Drew Gaffney

Honored for his pioneering medical research conducted aboard the space shuttle Columbia on NASA's first flight dedicated to human medical inquiry. Dr. Gaffney expanded fields of knowledge relating to the circulatory system, blood pressure patterns and heart functions. Gaffney is a Professor of Medicine and Chief, Clinical Cardiology at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Dr. Richard Smalley:

Honored for his revolutionary discovery of the hollow carbon cage molecule, C-60 Buckminsterfullerene, also known as the "Buckyball." This third basic form of pure carbon (the first two are diamond and graphite) is a historic breakthrough in the field of chemistry. Smalley received the Nobel Prize in 1996 for his work. He is the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Physics at Rice University.

Dr. John Hagelin

Honored for his promising work in particle physics in the development of supersymmetric grand unified field theory. Hagelin has relentlessly pursued of the understanding of human consciousness, and implemented innovative applications of advanced principles from control systems theory and optimization theory to digital sound reproduction. Hagelin is the Director of the Institute of Science, Technology, and Public Policy at the Maharishi University.

Fortune Education Summit

Fortune Magazine - Jim Hayes, Publisher, was cited for major contributions to the development of solutions to the educational crisis in America through the Fortune Education Summit, bringing the country's largest corporations into the effort to improve access to a quality education for all Americans.

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The 1991 Kilby Laureates

Wendy Kopp


Honored for her creative and successful implementation of Teach for America, a program she funded (over $30 million raised to date). Teach for America recruits thousands of America's brightest college graduates (Yale, Princeton, Stanford) to commit two years of their lives on behalf of education in rural and disadvantaged schools in America. Kopp continues to serve as President of Teach for America.

Apple Computer

Apple Computer was honored for its innovations in the uses of computer technology to prepare today's students for tomorrow's challenges.


EDS was honored for the JASON Project which brought the spirit of exploration and discovery to the classroom through advanced communication technology. More than 1,500,000 students and teachers in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, and Ecuador and the United Kingdom have participated in the JASON project since 1989.

Rockwell International

Rockwell International was honored for national leadership in support of higher education. The company sponsored cooperative programs encouraging women and minorities to choose engineering careers. Further, they provided university scholarships and grants. Hundreds of volunteers, including engineers, served as mentors and tutors on a weekly basis in grades K-12.

Tandy Corporation

Tandy Corporation was honored for its Tandy Technology Scholars Program which recognizes outstanding math, science and computer science students and teachers as champions of the classroom, with awards totaling $350,000 annually.

Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments was honored for its innovative efforts to develop, support and measure the effectiveness of Head Start Programs offering enhanced services to at-risk pre-school children to prepare them for success in the public education system.

Raytheon Corporation

Raytheon Corporation received a Special Technology Award for the development of advanced guided missile systems and particularly the development of the Patriot Missile Program.

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The 1990 Kilby Laureates

Truman Cook


Honored for his providing counsel and early leadership in community organizations involved in technology awareness, including the North Texas Commission, North Dallas Chamber of Commerce High Technology Committee and the Advanced Electronic Imaging Task Force.


Mark Fulbright


Honored for his winning the third place in the 1988 International Science Fair in Knoxville, Tennessee, for his scale model of an F-5 Freedom Fighter military jet wing at age 15. Mark's teachers, principal, parents and corporate supporters were also recognized for their vital contribution.

Dr. Michael Hawley

Honored for his innovative technological advancements, Hawley personally implemented the digital books bundled with the computer. He is an outstanding integrator of technology and keyboard artistry through the Bosendorfer laboratory experiments at MIT, using a piano adapted for computer experimentation. Hawley is Professor of Media Technology in the Media Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Bell Helicopter Textron

Bell Helicopter Textron was cited for its development of the V22 Osprey Aircraft using Bell's own tiltrotor technology, which could revolutionize military and civil aviation.

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